Sunday, November 22, 2015

Salient features of Indian constitution

                    India is a largest democracy of the world. In spite of so much diversity, inequality and poverty its integrity is intact and democracy is flourishing. Indian constitution has played a very important role in this. It would be very interesting to study the features of this constitution, which makes it so successful. So let us study those features today. 

Written constitution :- Constitution can be written or unwritten based on the fact that whether it is enacted by a constituent assembly or evolved over time. All modern constitutions, except constitution of the U. K are written constitution. Indian constitution too is a written constitution as it was enacted by constituent assembly in 26th November 1949 and enforced on 26th January 1950. unlike the constitution of the U. K, in Indian constitution all the articles, schedules and parts are documented and nothing has been left for oral tradition of custom or convention. The constitution of U. K is an unwritten one, where custom, conventions, traditions and agreements such as 'Magna Carta' signed many centuries ago all form the basis of constitution. 

Longest constitution :- Indian constitution is the longest constitution of the world, as originally it contained 395 articles (now more than 450), 8 schedules (now 12 schedules) and 22 parts. The reason for such a great size is that it is one comprehensive document which contains powers, functions and duties of Union, state and local governments. In the U. S, states have their separate constitution and Supreme Court, as it is a federation of states, but in Indian constitution India is mentioned as a union of states as it is not a result of some agreement between states. Hence in India we have single constitution, single citizenship, single integrated judicial system and all the three institutions of democracy that is Legislature, Executive and Judiciary derive their powers from common source.  

Federal constitution :- Indian constitution is a federal constitution since executive power has been devided between union and States. In India unlike in the U. K, states aren't merely administrative instruments created to facilitate union government, they have actual political powers and privileges, which can't be encroached by the Union in normal circumstances. To avoid any clash or overlap between union and State, Seventh schedule of the constitution contains three lists i.e Union, state and concurrent list. Only union government can make laws on the subjects mentioned in the Union list, state government can make the laws mentioned on the subjects of state list and both union as well as state can make laws on the subjects of concurrent list. However if the laws made by union and State on the subject of concurrent list contradicts each other than law made by union will prevail. However some people argue that Indian constitution is not truly federal as unlike in the U. S, union can make laws on state subjects in the event of national emergency under article 352, state emergency or president rule under article 356 and 365 and when Rajya Sabha passes a resolution with 2/3rd majority that it is in the national interest for the parliament to pass the law on the subject of the state list under article 249. Parliament can make laws on residuary subjects which are not mentioned in any list under article 248. Due to certain unique conditions and diversity in India, it was required that India must have federal structure but with strong union. Hence some people also call Indian constitution as semi federal or quasi federal. 

Rigid as well as flexible :- Constitution can be described as rigid or flexible on the basis of its ease of amendebility. For instance constitution of the U. K, is flexible because, there is no separate procedure required for amending the constitution, it can be as easily amended as the parliament U. K enacts a law.  On the other hand constitution of the U. S is rigid because to amend it, a constitution amendment bill has to be passed by the Congress with 2/3rd majority and then the passed bill has to be approved by the state assemblies of 3/4 states out of total 50 states. It is because of this very difficult process constitution of the U. S has been amended only 27 times in last two centuries. Indian constitution is both rigid as well as flexible because Article 368 of Indian constitution specifies two different procedures to amend the constitution. To amend the constitution a constitutional amendment bill has to be passed by parliament with 2/3rd majority, however if the amendment is related to those parts of Indian constitution which are related to powers, functions and privileges of state, then the bill has to be approved by 1/2 of state assemblies only then amendment comes in effect.  

Borrowing Bay :- Indian constitution is called borrowing bay because it has borrowed various provisions from different sources. The Preamble and Fundamental Rights in the Indian constitution are inspired from the Preamble and Bill of rights of the U. S constitution, Parliamentary system and bicameralism is based on the constitution of U. K, Directive principle of state policy are inspired from Irish constitution, Fundamental duties are based on the constitution of the U. S. S. R, Emergency powers are inspired from the constitution of Weimar Republic of Germany, federal structure from Canada. Some people criticize that Indian constitution is a patchwork of the pieces taken from different constitution and some even allege that it is a model of plagiarism. However Dr. Ambedkar had refuted these charges in his speech in constituent assembly. He said "Fundamental principles on the basis of which all modern constitutions are based have been firmly established in last 100 years and nobody can deviate from them in the name of exclusivity or uniqueness. Nobody can claim to have any copyright on the fundamental principles of governance and relation between state and its people. This principles are not figment of any individual's imagination, they are the product of development of collective human consciousness in last 100 years by its struggle against Colonialism and imperialism." Secondly although Indian constitution has taken inspiration from many sources but it has accepted then with ample modification, addition and subtraction, to make it conducive for Indian conditions. For instance in Indian constitution Article 17 'Abolition of untouchability' has been added in Fundamental rights, because untouchability is a tradition which exclusively exist in India. 

Fundamental Rights :- Indian constitution in part III gives certain Fundamental rights which are guaranteed to all the citizens by the state. These rights form the basis of meaningful human existence. These rights are Right to Equality (Article 14 -18), Right to liberty (Article 19 - 22), right against exploitation (Article 23 &  24), Right to freedom of religion (Article 25 - 28) Cultural and educational rights (Article 29 & 30) and Right to constitutional remedies (Article 32). These rights are justiciable which means if these rights are violated then aggrieved person can go to High Court or Supreme Court as these courts are guardian of fundamental rights. These rights can be suspended only in case of national emergency. 

Directive Principle of state policy :- Indian constitution contains 'Directive principle of state policy' in part IV, which issues certain economic, social and political guidelines to the government in pursuit of its policy of governance. This guidelines are to be followed by every government while making any policy or law. These are not just guidelines, they are also economic, social and political objectives to be achieved by the government. For instance application of uniform civil code and provision of universal education is goal as well as policy guideline. However unlike fundamentas rights, these are not justiciable, but they are still fundamental in the governance of country. 

                    It's this unique features which distinguishes it from other major constitutions of the world such as the constitution of U. K and the U. S and very successful in Indian conditions. 




Thursday, June 26, 2014

SETTING UP MANAGEMENT COURSES IN UNIVERSITY ADMINISTRATION: NEED OF THE TIME

   Most universities in India are caught in an administrative mess. Some of them are sick needing urgent treatment. Some have become so unwieldy, they cannot manage their affairs with any semblance of efficiency. Some require bifurcation or even trifurcation. Until administrative changes are brought in, our universities may just continue to drift rudderless with no one to show the right direction. What they need are managers to professionally govern them.

   Vice Chancellors are caught by group politics. They feel very lonely. The situation around them is frustrating. Naturally they are obliged to lean on some group for moral and technical support.. Moreover, they do not feel free to take independent decisions lest they encroach upon someone’s domain and fall from favour of politicians who pitch forked them to their coveted position.

   The Registrars of universities whose status is equivalent to that of Professors generally do not have strong administrative background with the result that they tend to flounder and become slaves of the slow-moving administrative system. No wonder, they become victims of vested interests and the inbuilt efficiency limitations.

   The university’s administrative staff is, with honorable exceptions, habituated in keeping matters pending for one reason or another. The various departments and sections dealing with matters like college affiliations, recognition of teachers and principals, college development council, university finance, registration of students for research degrees, statutory bodies like boards of studies, academic council, senate, and most importantly the examination section, hardly work in proper coordination with each other.

   The end result is: examinations are not held in time, the announcements of results get unduly delayed, leakage of question papers and malpractices  in awarding marks become common occurrences, and convocations often get delayed disturbing the annual time table.. Postponement of decision making, often due to delay in processing, leads to various positions in senate, academic council, management council, boards of studies etc, remaining unfilled. Lack of advance planning aggravated by internal politics leaves many issues unsettled creating an atmosphere of seething discontent among students, teachers, parents and the public at large. The image of the university gets tarred irretrievably. It badly hurts the pride of the alumni who remember with nostalgia and gratitude the past glory of their alma mater.

   The whole university administrative system presently appears to have deteriorated so much that mild palliatives will not work any more. A major reform by way of redistribution of powers can alone rescue the system from the chronic malaise.

   What the university administration needs is a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) with wide powers to implement the policy decisions of the Management Council backed by the orders of the Vice Chancellor and supported for implementation purposes by management degree holders at the middle and lower levels of the administrative hierarchy. 

   It is time that academic bodies of the universities sit down to discuss the situation and evolve new courses, on the lines of hospital management courses, to train managers for efficient functioning of our universities. Serious urgent thinking followed by action is the need of the time.


Dr. S.K.Modak


Monday, December 24, 2012

An open letter to Justice Markandeya Katju


Dear Markandeya katju,

            Nowadays writing an open letter to dignitaries has become a fashion. Every Tom, Dick and Harry writes letter to Sonia Gandhi, Narendra Modi, Manmohan Singh and in worst case to Digvijay singh. Until now I let the golden opportunity of getting instant fame go in vain. However your recent blog post on Delhi gang rape compelled me to write this letter.

           While expressing your opinion on Delhi gang rape you condemned this crime and asked court of law to give harsh punishment to guilty. However you also casted a doubt whether this same hue and cry had been raised had this incident taken place in rural India. Strangely, without waiting for the people to respond you yourself answered in negative and also added that Delhi is not the whole of India. 

            I know you were trying to hint that media and parliament are apathetic to the agony of poor and rural India. Why not, after all in the eyes of great intelligentsia of this country it is nothing less than a sin to ask for the rights of urban or middle class people. No matter how much wounded you are you have a right to scream only if you are a poor person according to the standards set by our very holy planning commission or if you live in a hut in some remote tribal area where Rahul Gandhi can come and have a dinner once in a blue moon. Otherwise all your cries are fake, your call for your right is bigotry of neo rich middle class.

           Well let me first tell you that rape is a rape whether it takes place in any remote part of India or in the national capital. However what makes Delhi gang rape more serious and perturbing (it is not an isolated case) is that it took place below the very nose of corridors of power. Delhi which is the capital of this country, the place where the Parliament, the Supreme Court and the Rashtrapati Bhuwan are situated. Where Police, para military forces, elite forces like S.P.G and N.S.G are stationed, which is supposed to be secure and guarded like a fort. If women are unsafe in Delhi then where else can they remain safe.

        You also blamed that 2,50,000 farmers have done suicide in last 10-15 years but there has hardly been any uproar. It really amazes me that how our so called intellectuals resonate in support of their blabbering. Every farmer, engineer, doctor or teacher indulging in suicide is not doing it because of professional reasons. There may be several reasons like extra marital affairs, enmity, alcoholism, mental sickness and so on behind a person’s suicide. Now naturally because India is still an under developing economy 2/3 people in this country are farmers and because of that if you look at suicide figures profession wise you will always find large number of farmers committing suicide.  I am not saying that all farmers committing suicide are doing it because of above mentioned unprofessional reason but claiming all these deaths are because of misery and poverty of farmers and then pinching each and everyone that unless and until problem of farmer's suicide is not solved no other issue can be raised is stupidity.

          You are saying that everyday 45 farmers commit suicide but you must be knowing that every minute 23 women are raped and this is official figure which must be lower than actual figures since in our patriarchal society it is really difficult for woman to come out and complaint that she has been raped. Even if she does that, in many instances police denies writing their complaint since it unnecessarily increases their burden of work. I am not saying that issue of farmer’s suicide is less important than gang rape. Actually both problems are different than each other and should be dealt separately rather than mingling it with each other. However everyone will agree that because of huge vote bank of farmers they are being helped in various ways in the form of subsidy, minimum support prices, waiver of debt, cheap debt(7% per anum and if farmer pays it promptly then next time he’ll get it at the rate of 4% per anum) and tax free income. Of course because of corruption many of these benefits don’t reach to farmers but corruption is not only hurting farmers it is equally painful for urban middle class also whom you are blaming.

       You are blaming the people that they are not raising enough voice over the issue of massive unemployment, skyrocketing inflation and shabby condition of primary education, but do you have slightest of idea that it is these very people whom you are blaming for not being serious enough are the victims of unemployment and double digit inflation. There is lot of anger among people over these issues but people understand that these problems are not created by someone with criminal intentions like rape rather some of them are global phenomena, hence it will take some time to reduce unemployment and inflation and making furor over every issue will not solve the problem.

       You are saying that section 376 of Indian penal code already contains life sentence for rape and hence there is no need of raising demand for capital punishment on rape. But, can you tell me in how many cases rapists have been awarded life term. Had our legal system seriously sentenced people with strict punishment then menace of rape wouldn’t have grown up to such an extent (I know there are other reasons too). In most of the cases accused get acquitted because of shabby legal process. Criminals get bail in few days and then roam freely but victim suffers the life term of ignominy, social boycott and mental harassment. Cases take decades to reach the climax and if victim is fortunate to get the conviction of criminal, punishment in such cases is very trivial. In fact Pratibha Patilhas made another record by pardoning many rapists cum murderers in wholesale.

       Finally if you believe that some issue requires people’s attention then you can raise that issue separately but you have no right to ask people who raise some important issues that why are you showing outburst on particular issue when you didn’t raise your voice over other issue. Different people have different priorities, no one can fight for all the issues in the world. Rape is not the only national problem in the country, but rape certainly is a national problem in the country. Rather than issuing useless statements and making controversies do some real job. 
                                                      A common man of India

Wednesday, November 30, 2011

First Blog Anniversary

       In October 2010 when I created this Blog, I didn’t know much about blogging. Because of this I wasn’t sure how much I would be able to sustain in the blogging. Still I decide to go for it because there was no loss in indulging in this experience even if it fails. However I wasn’t even aware how to create blog. So I went to the refuge of Google and asked the same question how to create blog? After all Google is a newly incarnated god of our generation. In fact Google is more merciful than our traditional god because it provides us everything within a faction of second without much penance.

             Google directed me to the BlogSpot.com where I could create my new blog. I filled up the information asked by it and hurray the blog was born! Destiny has shaped many important decision of my life, choosing BlogSpot as blogging platform was one of them. Although Blogger is not as great as Word press, as it lacks in design, plug-ins and professionalism of Word press but still Blogger is of great use for a novice like me as it is very simple to use. Had it not been so simple to use I would have quit very soon from blogging. 

          After creating a blog it took me few days to learn how to write post, understand various features available on dashboard and inside the blog. Now I started thinking about topic to write my first post. Thousands of ideas flooded my mind out of which, thanks to U.P.A government I finally chose corruption as it is the hottest issue in UPA regime.

           My first post Corruption:The Cancer of India was published on exactly 30th November 2010, that is exactly one year ago. It took me almost one and half month to write my first post as I wasn’t habituated of writing on computer and since this was my first post I was over excited about it, hence I published this post only after editing 4 to 5 times. As you can learn from the length of the article I didn’t want to leave anything related to corruption uncovered hence I wrote very long 2700 words long article. After that I wrote two articles on debacle of India’s intelligence network, that is Intelligence Failure-1 and Intelligence Failure-2. Both these article were as vast as my first article and covered almost all aspect of the issue which I discussed in the post. For this I got some applaud from friends and readers however everyone admonished me against writing too much lengthy article. 

             During same time I read an article on net which said that people have very low attention span online hence it is advisable to write small posts so that people read more posts on your blog and come again to read other posts. I found this advice worth following and decide to reduce the size of my post up to 1500 words without compromising the quality of my post. Although still my post are very long as compared to other blogs but I can't compromise with content in pursuit of writing small article. 

          In last one year 17 posts are published on my blog. Out of which Lokpal to Jan Lokpal became most popular post of my blog. It was recommended by newspaper DNA in its 11th April issue. Another post Government V/S Anna- Caution: danger is ahead written on Anna’s movement was selected for Tangy Tuesday contest of Blogadda. Before that my first and only satire post till now A secret Letter to party high command was also selected for Tangy Tuesday contest. My post Marital Suicide- Causes and Analysis was recommended by Blogadda on Twitter. Incidentally it became my second most popular post. My analysis in this post on the psychology of married woman committing suicide was applauded by my Psychology teacher also. Out of 17 posts ATTITUDINAL CHANGES IN YOUTH - ‘Jiyo Zindagi Yaro! Is guest post written by Dr. Shankar Modak. 

            In this one year I wrote posts on variety of topics like Politics, Defence, Psychology, Terrorism, History, Women’s issues, Social issues and National Issues. Every work has two aspects quality and quantity. I am happy that my readers liked the quality of my content. Till now whatever feedback I have got from the readers via comments, e-mail and ratings they are very satisfying and encouraging for me as a blogger. I know there are some complaints about frequency of posting. In 12 months I have written just 16 posts which means average 1 post per month. Some months have gone bare without any post. This has happened because of my busy schedule due to my own studies and that of my student’s studies. Apart from this my unwell health also created hindrance in the path of regular writing. However this is my new blogging year resolution, from now I will write if not more at least 3 posts per month.

           As I said earlier when I started blogging I didn’t know anything about it but as my knowledge grew about it I have brought many changes in my blog. First of all I shifted from sub domain to custom domain. I changed the name of my blog because I found that the earlier name wasn’t reflecting my own personality and that of my blog. Hence I chose this new name Argumentative Indian, because people says that I argue a lot and this blog is also about my arguments for the cause of better India.

            I have also changed the template of my blog. I have installed few widgets on my blog like recently I installed Apture. Apture provides instantaneous access to information with its in-page search technology. Suppose while reading the post you don’t understand the meaning of any technical word than you just select that word and within a second that meaning of that word, videos and images related to that word will appear in Apture pop-up window. You will also find list of all the posts from my blog in which this word has been used. When you’ll click on any Wikipedia link it will appear in Apture pop-up window. Apart from this I have put E-mail subscription box in the top of sidebar. Through E-mail subscription you can get my new posts directly delivered in your inbox. I have also installed Wibia toolbar on blog. You can see it in bottom, it will help you share posts on social networking sites, and you can read announcements of upcoming articles by clicking on small icon of man near twitter tab.

           I will like to receive your feedback via comments. If you want to give personal feedback, you can send me e-mail or can use contact form in the header. Some time we like the post but we don’t have anything to say. In such case you can let me know your feelings by clicking on comments, when Disqus comment platform opens, you can click on like tab. I have found many people read my blog, but they remain hidden I would be pleased if you join my blog via any social networking platform like Facebook, Twitter, Google+, or Google fan widget in the sidebar. 

             Apart from love and respect of readers Blogging has earned me some very good friends in online world, whom perhaps I would have never met had I not started blogging. I also found some very good blog, two of which I would specifically like to mention are Law and Society by Ravi Kumar and My World My Perception by Restless. 

           That’s it for now. Thank you all for your love and support, will try to do much better in next year. Your comments are welcome about your experience with this blog.

Friday, November 4, 2011

Muammar Gaddafi- Devil Dictators part-I

Muammar Gaddafi
            Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi was born in Sirte(Libya) in 1942. He belonged to a poor family of Libya. His childhood passed in poverty and struggle. Like most Libyans he too lived in a tent house in the desert of Libya. In 1951 H e joined The Libyan military service as it was the only opportunity for an average Libyan to live life luxuriously and see the world. This was the most important period of his life. The lessons which he learned during this time changed his future course of life. During this time Gamal Abdel Nasser lead a revolution in Egypt which overthrew the monarchy of Egypt and Sudan. Nasser modernized Egypt, ended Suez crisis, built Dam Aswan and developed the sense and pride Nationalism in people of Egypt. Because of all this he was seen with respect in the Arab world, Gaddafi was no exception to this. He was inspired from Nasser’s revolution and also considered him as his ideal. Egypt’s defeat in six day war with Israel in 1965 saddened Gaddafi. Being a supporter of Arab nationalism Israel was natural enemy to him and now U.S was also added to his black list because Israel couldn’t have survived against collective forces of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, Badin and Jordan if it wasn’t supported by U.S.

          After his completion of military training and his Graduation in History he went to U.K for further studies. There became an incident which planted the seeds of oil politics in his brain. Once he went to a casino in London with some of his Arab and British friends. There he saw King Idris’ personal adviser spending millions of $ on gambling. His blood boiled since an average Libyan was compelled to live a miserable life of poverty and King and his aides were spending millions and billions on there lavish life style. The main cause of this situation was vast Oil reserves in Libya. Geographically Libya was situated in the desert of Africa, having no other natural resources except plenty of oil underneath its land. In spite of blessed with significant oil reserves Libya remained poor because multi-national oil companies achieved contracts for extracting oil on throw away prices from King Idris. He got another reason to fight against U.S. Next few years Gaddafi spend in studying lives and times of great military commanders like Field Marshall Rommel, Field Marshall Montgomery etc. very carefully. During this period he also meticulously planned strategies regarding how to use oil as a weapon in his war against western world.

         In1969 Gaddafi became Colonel in the Libyan Army. During the same year Occidental Oil Company of U.S completed the construction of oil pipeline on the northern coast of Libya. For its inauguration ceremony Armand hamer the chairman of Occidental Oil Company himself came to Libya. He was given “Guard of Honor” on his arrival. Incidentally Colonel Gaddafi was the commanding officer of that marching contingent. He couldn’t tolerate this humiliation that Libyan Army was giving Guard of Honor to a chairman of U.S’ Oil Company. He decided to end this slavery by dethroning King Idris.

         When King Idris was out of Libya, Gaddafi with some of his trusted allies carried on coup and captured the power. Neither superior officers of Gaddafi nor people opposed this rebellion since everyone was tired of Idris. Initially the world thought that Gaddafi and his boys have indulged in blind dare. Since king Idris was puppet of U.S, by deposing him in this manner Gaddafi has thrown direct challenge to the supremacy of U.S. However Gaddafi proved to be smarter than all the political analysts who forecasted premature end of his rule.

       Immediately after acquiring power Gaddafi abolished the old constitution of 1951 and instead formed 12 members directorate called Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) which acted as government in the Libya. RCC declared Libya as “Libyan Arab Republic” and announced bringing freedom, unity, and social justice, guaranteeing the right of equality to its citizens, and opening before them the doors of honorable work as its main objective. Thus he won the hearts of Libyan people. He also affirmed that treaties and agreements signed by ousted monarch would be respected and property and lives of foreign nationals would be protected. This helped him to earn recognition of not only Libyan people but also of the other countries of the world. In this condition U.S was left with no excuse to topple Gaddafi, hence soon U.S recognized Gaddafi as a genuine leader of Libya.

         After consolidating his power he began the game for which he had arranged this coup. He sent notice to U.S and U.K to shut down their military bases operating on the land of Libya. Now U.S was trapped since being a leader of Libya he had every right to tell foreign powers to wind up their military bases from his land. After driving off foreign military Gaddafi increased the oil prices. This technique was called as ‘participation’ in which neither oil companies are nationalized nor are private companies given complete free hand. In participation oil companies are allowed to work in oil producing nations however greater control remains in the hands of government of host nation and they can increase the price of oil at their will. 

          Because of greater control over oil assets and growing oil prices Libya prospered economically. Libya became the nation with highest nominal per capita GDP in Africa. Literacy rate in Libya rose from 10% to 90%. As there was no river in Libya Gaddafi also completed the development of artificial river Great Manmade River, without any foreign financial assistance.
 
                 Later on rulers like Saddam Hussein of Iraq and ruling Saud family of Saudi Arabia too utilized the weapon of price rise to achieve their political ends. King Fahad of Saudi Arabia used oil embargo to prevent U.S from rendering military assistance to Israel during Yom Kippur war fought between Egypt and Syria on one side and Israel on the other. King Fahad also convinced OPEC countries about the effectiveness of this weapon. Because of which members of OPEC countries revived this dormant organization once again to exploit the benefits of collective bargaining in oil prices. Use of oil as a weapon not only harmed U.S but also dazzled other developing economies of the world. India itself is spending 1/3 of its For-ex reserves to import oil.
 
Saddam Hussein
          Even after repetitive efforts when he failed to hurl any serious blow to U.S or Israel, he started sponsoring terrorist activities in Europe, Australia, U.S and middle -East. Later on countries like Iraq, Iran and Saudi Arabia also started walking on his path. Ruling Saud family used money earned through oil to spread radical Islam in the world. They also sponsored Sunni Iraq against Shea Iran in the Iran-Iraq war of 1980 in which more than 10,00,000 people on both the sides lost their lives. Trails of direct involvement of Saud family in the 9/11 attack on World Trade Center were also found later wards.

Abdelbaset al-Megrahi
             Although Gaddafi was involved in many terrorist activities but serious evidence about his involvement in terrorist activities came out during investigation of Lockerbie bombing case. Pan Am Flight 103 of Pan American World Airways was blown off b y bomb on 21 December 1988 in the sky of Lockerbie town of southern Scotland. Abdelbaset al-Megrahi who was the secret agent of Gaddafi was main culprit in this case. He was convicted and sentenced for life imprisonment.

            He also wanted to make nuclear bomb to destroy U.S and Israel. Over the years his obsession with nuclear bomb grew so much that a legend says once he went to China at 2 P.M in the night, without informing Chinese authorities in advance about his arrival. When asked about such sudden visit he showed them two big suitcase full of $ and told them “take all this money but give me one atom bomb I want to hurl it on U.S.”. He also openly supported and sponsored Pakistan’s nuclear weapon program. In recognition of his help Pakistan renamed cricket stadium in Lahore as Gaddafi stadium in 1974. 

               Absolute power and unquestionable authority turned him into a narcissistic jerk. He had acquired personal wealth worth of approximately 70 billion U.S $. He started spending money earned through oil for his personal luxuries. He had undergone several plastic and cosmetic surgeries to remain young forever. He liked to be surrounded by beautiful women bodyguards and nurses. There are many legends about his and his son’s relationships with his lady bodyguards and nurses.

               Gaddafi abducted power in Libya on the name of fighting tyranny of King Idris but he himself proved to be a greater evil then Idris. In his rule Libyan people were devoid of their fundamental rights like Right to speech and freedom of expression. Price rise of petroleum only initially helped Libya later on all this money was spent on Gaddafi’s luxuries and in executing his utopian ideas. People wanted change however unlike democracy in autocratic states change of rule is possible only by either death or retirement of dictator(read -Revolution in India? No way!!!!!!).  

Dead body of Gaddafi
     Since 2010 uprising took place in many Arab countries like Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia etc. this revolts also sparked off rebellion in Libya. In the initial stage people’s movement was non violent however Gaddafi’s soldiers opened fire on protesters and rape d women to crush the anti Gaddafi movement ruthlessly. This ignited the anger of people and they took arms against Gaddafi. Such inhuman response to protesters also cost him the loss of international recognition. In the month of August 2011 Arab league declared NTC as legitimate representative of Libya. His overseas accounts were freezed by western countries. NATO forces led by U.S and France supported rebellion National Transitional Council (NTC) in the war. Finally Gaddafi was captured alive on 20 October 2011 and was given brutal death.
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